is a developmental issue in that the existing gender imbalances and
inequalities in the society prevent the society from realizing its full
potential in all the activities of development in economic, social, and
government is in the process of making sure that gender issues are
integrated in planning and budgeting, in order to strengthen the
relationship between men and women, which the main thrust in
development. Thus, without
a strong relationship on both sides that will reduce the pace of
Tanzania development vision 2025 aims at achieving a high quality
livelihood for its People attain good governance through the rule of law
and develop a strong and competitive economy.
In order to attain that gender equality and the empowerment of
women in all socio-economic and political relations and culture are
considered. Gender is
Mainstreamed in all aspects of Development to promote National economy,
political, socio and culture.
Tanzania it is estimated that women especially rural women provide 80
percent of labour force in rural area and producing 60 percent of food
production. Though, they
are the main producers of cash crops, the environment does not allow
them to own their own wealth. Women
do not have decision on the reproductive issues for example most women
cannot decide on the number of children in the family though they are
the ones playing a big role in child rearing.
patterns in employment, in farm and non farm activities has changed in
Tanzania during the last ten years, as an increasing number of women
have become active in market-oriented activities, and more responsible
for providing cash needs of the household.
Women are in the forefront in expanding micro and small
enterprises in what is often referred to as the informal sector.
and men have been found to enter the labour force in different ways, and
on different terms, not only in Tanzania, but worldwide.
Differences are found between women and men, as well as among
different groups of women (rural-urban; rich-poor; educated -
noneducated) and men. Certain
kinds of work have been stereotyped as being ‘male’ or ‘female’,
because of the socialization process on the division of labour which
stipulates different roles for men and women. Most rural women carry water, firewood and farm produce on
their heads, take care of children, cook and farm.
assumptions, however, contribute to a process whereby most women are
allocated low paying, unskilled or lesser skilled work in both the
formal and the informal sectors of the money economy. The terms upon which women and men compete for employment are
set by wider social relations, including cultural, economic and
political arenas. These
include the assumption that a woman’s primary commitment is to care
for a family at home, in the ‘reproductive’ sphere of life; and that
each woman depends on a male provider for cash needs.
skills label itself is usually arbitrary, and culturally defined.
Skills associated with women tend to be undervalued, and defined
as unskilled, even when they entail complex actions and thought
processes, such as child care, subsistence farming, agro-processing and
Tanzania women’s legal and human rights were constrained by inadequate
legal literacy among women. The main reason being that the existing
legal system does not reach the majority of women who live in rural
areas. There is also discriminatory application of statutory laws,
inadequate legislative protective mechanism such as protection orders,
baring orders and safety orders in the legal system and insensitive
investigations and prosecution of cases involving violence against women
and children. Like many societies in Africa, customary laws and
practices remain discriminatory against women on issues of property
inheritance particularly on land, as well as institutionalised violence
against women e.g. wife battering, rape, female genital mutilation and
the existence, side by side, of a multitude of statutory, religious and
customary laws that might be conflicting.
get away with the situation, the Government of the United Republic of
Tanzania committed itself to improve women’s legal capacity through
legal literacy schemes and mass campaigns to educate women and men on
women’s human rights. The
objective was to enhance the status of women through increased knowledge
of their legal and human rights. The Government also put in place a
mechanism within the legal system that intends to protect women and
children. This incorporates human rights teaching in school as well as
in adult education programmes. Emphasis on para-legal training so as to
offer women extra help at their first point of call in issues affecting
their legal rights since the existed legal system did not reach many
women especially in the rural areas.
Government in collaboration with NGOs has been working to remove
discriminatory provisions in existing laws, which do not grant the
rights and freedom of women. The
Government planned to redraft inheritance Laws, the Marriage Act and
follows up the convention on the rights of the child. The Government is
in the process currently establishing a Commission on Human Rights in
Tanzania. The objective of
starting this commission was to co-ordinate the strategies for promoting
ways of fighting against violation of human rights.
Government has passed several laws in favour of women i.e. Sexual
Offences Special Provisions Act of 1998, the Land Law Act of 1999 and
Village Land Act of 1999. The first Law protects women, girls and
children from sexual harassment and abuse. The last two laws repeal and
replace previous legislations on land matters thus enabling women to
enjoy equal rights with men in access, ownership and control of land.
complement all the above activities, publicity was promoted by using
Mass Media in sensitising and making the public aware of the Legal
System. The Government and
a number of NGOs have identified and spoken on several areas where
women’s rights are still violated. They have also worked to sensitise
the public as well as women issues of gender violence.
the Government has encountered some constraints in the efforts to
enhance legal capacity to grassroots women. These include financial
incapability to sensitize the grassroot women on their rights and to
provide legal assistance in front of the courts of law.
Empowerment of Women and Poverty Eradication
Tanzania about 60 percent of women in Tanzania live in absolute poverty.
This is a result of the increasing poverty among the rural and
urban population generally, the growing gap between the rich and poor;
women and men; and among women themselves.
In the rural sector and the poor urban suburbs, women carry a
heavier burden because by tradition, women lack property rights and they
also lack adequate knowledge on existing credit facilities.
Due to their low education level, their knowledge and skills on
how to manage their work is generally low.
Most of women also depend on poor technology, which consume their
time and energy.
overcome this situation, the United Republic of Tanzania committed
itself to enhance women’s economic capacity through making credit
facilities available to a majority of women. Building and supporting
women entrepreneurial skill, improving their management capabilities,
increase training and access to technology.
for credit to women have increased since the 4th World Women
Conference in Beijing. A number of NGOs and donor agencies have made
serious efforts to advance credit to women at the village level. Women
have been trained on credit management in general. These efforts have
increased participation of women in income generation projects.
constraint is lack of financial resources for monitoring utilisation of
funds. The other constraint is the large number of the credit needy
groups which the available funds, cannot suffice. What still has to be
done is to strengthen NGOs so that they are able to provide credit to
more beneficiaries and also to find ways that NGOs can be
Government has advised and urged private financial institutions to give
credit to women. More opportunities have been provided for
entrepreneurial skills training and in simple technology such as food
processing and textiles. Most of the beneficiaries of the credit funds
are urban based and the credit processing is cumbersome.
Government will put extra effort so that more women can take part in
productive economic activities by way of credit facilitation. It will
for example work harder to encourage private financiers to give credit
to women by acting as one of their guarantors. The Government will also
intensify efforts to look for markets for women’s produce. Moreover,
the Government in collaboration with NGOs is embarking on gender
mainstreaming the planning and budgetary process in all sectors.
Government will intensify efforts to encourage women to participate in
International Trade Fairs so that a wider audience sees their products.
The number of women participating in International Trade Fairs have been
increasing from 100 in 1996 to 200 in 1999 and the quality of their
products has improved. Efforts to mobilise women to participate in
International Trade Fair have been done by the Government and NGOs
dealing with poverty alleviation and businesswomen association.
the Government and NGOs still need to conduct training on production of
quality products and marketing skills; sensitise women on involvement of
women in International Trade Fairs; open showrooms for agricultural
produce and manufacturing products at all levels. The Government needs
to conduct studies on investment opportunities for women and what the
obstacles to credit are; promote the establishment of a women’s bank
that will give women investors the required priority in credit. The
Government need as well to educate women on available credit facilities;
encourage more women to participate in savings schemes; encourage urban
women entrepreneur to invest in rural poverty alleviation programmes
and; prepare and disseminate credit information for women in the
implement the Beijing platform for Action the Government worked also at
identification of women entrepreneurs for training in skills for
entrepreneurial and business management skills in the informal sector.
The Government aimed at training 20 percent of women entrepreneurs each
year. The number of women
entrepreneurs trained has been increasing but has not reached the
planned 20 percent. One of the constraints is the lack of data on the
number of women involved in this scheme, making it hard to gauge the
impact of Government’s efforts. However, the Government still needs to
increase its efforts to train more entrepreneurial women to reach the 20
percent goal it had set. The Government needs to embark on research so
as to get data on the number of women who are trained and assess the
impact this has had on their skills.
income generating activities increase women’s work, individual and
private institutions are encouraged to develop and promote appropriate
and affordable technology, that will ease the women’s work load
particularly those directed at making domestic and farm labour less
Government has used several strategies to improve the economic
empowerment of women. The first strategy was to make access and
equitable control of means of production possible for women. The
Government therefore revised the National Land Policy of 1995 and
enacted the Land Law Act of 1999 as well as the Village Act of 1999.
This has enabled women to own clan and family land on equal
rights with men. The
Government working with NGOs and international donor agencies have made
a step to educating men and women on the importance of women owning land
and other means of production. The role of women and their contributions
at the family and community levels in the development process have been
emphasised. The other constraint still to be addressed is educating the
society about these changes and how women can benefit from these
major constraint lies in the traditional norms and culture. It is hard
to change attitudes in the society. The main thrust is to embark on
gender sensitisation to influence change attitude of the society.
Government plans to conduct research with the view to identify NGOs and
strengthen their management and outreach capacities.
has been technical support in agriculture. The Government has called for
and encouraged donors to support research on the use of natural and
traditional pesticides. Women are now more involved in the fish and bee
keeping business, both increasing access to natural resources.
constraint is the traditional beliefs that women cannot carry commercial
activities. Efforts still need to be intensified so that women have
better access to natural resources. It is important that the public be
gender sensitised on resources mobilisation, ownership and management so
as to eradicate poverty.
Political Empowerment and Decision Making
the position of women in Tanzania has been low compared to men. Women
were not expected to influence the decision-making processes from
domestic level to the national level.
In the family attitudes, which consider men as heads of
households, exists. These attitudes are rigidly based on patriarchal
structures, which limit women voices from influencing allocation of
domestic resources. At
national level, the existing attitudes influence the election and
appointment of women to high profile positions and hence limit women’s
voices from impacting decision making and the planning process.
Government of Tanzania recognises that women’s advancement and
achievement of gender equality are a matter of human rights and a
condition to social justice. The Government of Tanzania reaffirms its
commitment to enhancement of women’s rights for national and world
progress. The Government has ractified the convention on the elimination
of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Furthermore, the
Government of Tanzania reaffirms its commitment to the Beijing Platform
for Action that upholds the Convention for total elimination of all
kinds of discrimination against women and all other international human
rights instruments calling for gender equality. Promotion of women
participation in politics and decision making is among the four critical
areas of concern for Tanzania.
has changed regulations and taken affirmative action to include women in
decision making. The Pariament
passed a Bill in 200 to increase the seats. In the local
Government councils wehre women are assured of 33 percent of seats while
in the Union Parliament women are assured
of 20 percent of the seats.
Government has planned to increase the participation of women in
politics to 30 percent by the year 2005.In
the 2000 elections women were mobilised to contest for both constituency
seats and special seats for women within the 30 percent set aside in
parliament. Extra efforts were to be made to ensure that as large as
possible proportion of women register for the elections both as voters
and candidates. Media campaigns and public meetings for awareness
creation were part of the strategy to achieve this.
second thrust was on increasing the number of women in decision making
positions and this was to be achieved through Government appointments
and other public structures. The Cabinet Decision no 23 of 1996 among
other issues endorsed for implementation the increase of women in all
decision making levels such as Board of Directors, Heads of
Institutions, Commissioners and in national delegations. The other
strategy was gender mainstreaming the civil service and creation of a
database on women and their qualifications for use by appointing
activities were embarked on in order to make 30 percent of leadership
women. Activities included conducting mass media campaigns, workshops
and seminars to motivate women to contest for leadership positions;
development of women’s database and directorate of women advancement
in key ministries and women units in the regions and districts within
Government structure. Also monitoring implementation of the 1996 Cabinet
decision on appointment of women into political and public services
mainstreaming the civil service; and review the civic subject syllabus
at all levels of education to incorporate skill development in
multiparty democracy existing in Tanzania in the period of
implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action also strengthened the
conducive environment for establishment of civil organisations. Numerous
women NGOs and CBOs have been established alongside women wings in all
political parties registered in the country. These women NGOs and women
wings in the political
parties provide for a forum to women to address not only social and
economic issues but also political issues. The constitutional reform
exercise going on in the country provides yet another opportunity to
include women‘s rights in the supreme law of the land.
advent of political pluralism in Tanzania increased
in the political arena in line with the provisions of the
constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania as amended from time to
time. The constitution recognises women‘s capacity and the right to
participate in politics, social and economic life of the country. The
right to vote and the right to stand for election are provided equally
for men and women. This was practised successfully in the 2000 general
elections. This is a clear indication that there is a conducive
environment for women to participate freely and equally with men in
politics and decision making in Tanzania.
Women’s Access to Education, Training and Employment
is a key to liberation and an important tool to alleviate socio-economic
problems. Women face numerous constraints to access education and
training at all levels. The problems include the unfriendly pedagogy
especially in the teaching of mathematics, technical and science
subjects, which require competitiveness and some degree of assertiveness
which girls often lack. Truancy, pregnancy, economic hardships and early
marriages constrain girls from completing their schooling.
Existing social attitudes favour and promote boys’ education
and pay less interest in the education of girls.
Government committed to increase women access to education in order to
narrow the gap between boys and girls in primary and secondary schools.
For example while the enrolment of girls in primary schools is 50
percent, in secondary schools girls are 46 percent of the total
enrolment. Less and less girls are enrolled in higher learning
institutions (at the university girls are 17 percent of the total
of the major constraints facing women in gainful employment is low
education inadequate economically productive skills. The focus of the
Government has been to increase women enrolment into vocational,
tertiary and higher education. The Government also restructured
education and training at this level so that it relates to employment
creation. Several actions
has been taken by the Government as follows:
of girls’ vocational, training centres and technical secondary
of female trainers in vocational and technical schools.
out-skills and labour market survey.
and remove gender stereotyping in textbooks and in other learning
instructors to be gender sensitive.
parents to encourage and facilitate girls to join technical
aspiring girls to successful professional women role models and
of courses and training in skills potentially for providing gainful
employment to women.
boarding facilities for girls.
of curriculum to include a wider range of skills, technical
enterprenurship skills and cross cutting issues.
of target oriented curricula with special focus on women and girls.
of short courses, open collages at flexible hours and location so as
to meet the employment promotion demands of women who have time
of training nurseries and or workshops so as to offer apprenticeship
facilities for women.
of training fund for women to increase their managerial and decision
is a fact that girls and women including those
who complete schooling and training do not get equal access to
employment opportunities. Constraints facing women in employment
include lack of child care facilities both day care and
nursery schools. Specific
health and industrial safety provisions tailored to the realisation of
the women’s practical gender needs. To alleviate these problems, the
Government intends to:
and monitor sanitation facilities in working places with a gender
and support establishment of Day Care Centres for working mothers.
private sector employers to allow breast-feeding breaks.
the sensitisation of employers on women development issues.
women’s education in informal sector on relevant governing rules
safety regulations at places of work for both men and women.
the current rules and regulations, which are unfavourable to women
in the informal sector.
Labour law and other related laws
on patterns and characteristics of women employment both in the
formal and informal sectors as well as dissemination of gender
disagregated data in employment.
the civil servants on the schemes of service, rules and regulations;
improvement of job opportunities.
mainstreaming and balancing is ought to consider supportive and negative
forces in the national social, political and cultural environment. Four
positive forces are worth mentioned. First, Tanzania has formed a Legal
Reform Commission to investigate and recommend to government oppressive
and discriminative laws for deletion or reform. Secondly, Tanzania has
in place a government structure, which has a national, regional, local
government, ward, and village levels that can facilitate mass gender
awareness sensitization. Thirdly, Tanzania currently enjoys a conducive
political environment, which recognizes and practices gender equality.
Finally, Tanzania is a signatory to the Beijing Platform of Action, and
the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against
Women (CEDAW), and an active implementer of the two conventions.
of Community Development, women and Children
Box 3448 Dar Es Salaam.
Tel: 255-22- 2115074.
Fax: 255-22- 211459;
– Umoja wa Wanawake Tanzania
Gender Networking Programme (TGNP)
P.O Box 8921 Dar es Salaam;
Media Women’s Association (TAMWA)
Care Women Association
raise the standard of education and play for children
To assist women groups to establish nursery schools and play grounds
Organization for Women Progress in Tanzania
To enable women to understand themselves, their problems and life around
To mobilize women towards accepting progress
To train women on gender issues and to raise their standard of
Women Association of Tanzania
To mobilize and train all catholic women to know their role in
To help embark on economic activities
To promote family life, health care, natural family planning.
of Associations of Women Entrepreneurs
To facilitate identification of programmes, to create more
awareness on concerns and issues of women in business
Encourage women to set up enterprises or expand existing ones
Serve as a link between members and PTA or other NGOs with the
aim of promoting trade and development
Increase awareness of women in business issues at policy level.
Increase women participation in decision making, designing,
implementing and evaluation with emphasis on programmes that integrate
women in business and development activities.
Women’s Club of Dar es Salaam
To hold the trust property upon that trust and the same shall be
applied in the United Republic of Tanzania for the Advancement of
religion or education or the relief of poverty and distress of girls and
Society of Muslim Youth
Girl Guides Association
To provide girls with self-training in the development of
character, responsible citizenship and service to community.
To rain girls to develop responsible citizenship and services to
To train girls to develop responsible attitudes and character in
preparation for their involvement in family, social, cultural, economic
and political life.
To reform boys character through planned and tested activities
which help them become good citizens who are physically, mentally and
Tanzania Women Development Foundation
To assist women in development
To contribute to the economic development of Tanzania by
providing economic skills to women in business.
To provide technical support to business women.
To establish a sense of awareness of women’s role in economical
To offer consultancy services to women such a feasibility
Tanzania Women Lawyers Association
(TAWLA)P.O. Box 9460, Dar es Salaam
Youth Development and Employment Foundation
To raise the standard of living of youths by assisting
individuals or groups of young men and women to establish themselves in
small scale farming and business enterprises.
This is done by providing loans, technical assistance and
business to help them become self-reliant.
Women Advancement Trust (WAT)
P.O. Box 5914, Dar es Salaam
To mobilize women as an important part of the population to
undertake a meaningfully active and positive role in social economic
development of the country in line with the nations stated goals of
development through self reliance.
To create awareness among women of the responsibilities they have
in the growth of population including issues of reproduction and rural
To reduce and minimize the imbalance in the share of development
gains between men and women
To foster an interest amongst women and their role in environment
and sustainable development.
To contribute to efforts which rectify the disadvantages position
or girls and women in the education system.
To promote among women sound knowledge regarding shelter in human
To disseminate information among women regarding access to
various types of credit and other available facilitates and
opportunities supportive of women.
and Child Networking Society of Tanzania
To promote and advance education and knowledge of the peoples and
culture of commonwealth countries.
in Agriculture and Livestock Development
Women Research and Documentation Project (WRDP)
P.O. Box 35108, Dar es Salaam
Tel. 255-22-2443500-8, ext. 2460
It is a research group of academic women and conducts research
and documentation of women affairs.
Seeks to promote the study and research of women affairs in
development aspects in Tanzania and third world.
Women Christian Association (YWCA)
The (YWCA) branch in Tanzania of the YMCA alliance offers social
and welfare services and facilities for helping young girls and single
women in towns – socially, physically and spiritually, for better
living and service to others.
Service Volunteers Society
Development education on leadership
Development of youth farms, environment activities and micro
enterprises and AIDS control
23. Institute of
Development Studies Women’s Study Group) University of Dar es Salaam
P.O Box 35169
Tel. 255-022-49160/49192 ext. 2600
MEWATA (Medical Women Association of Tanzania): P.O Box 65504 Dar
SWAAT (Society for Women and AIDS (Tanzania)
TAWOSTE (Tanzania Women on Science and Technology)
AIDS VICTIMS SUPPORT GROUP
P. O BOX 33279 DAR ES SALAAM,
To counsel both victims and their families
Counseling, providing educational/medical and home care counseling to
AIDS patients. Dissemination of information
and knowledge on AIDS and HIV.
Centre for Children’s Rights
P.O. Box 27, Mwanza
To empower communities to come up with effective
response to AIDS crisis, to address the needs and rights of children
affected by AIDS, particularly children who have been forced to the
streets of MWANZA. Gender sensitization and awareness raising on AIDS
and preventive measure which also aim at involvement of children.
Networking with women groups at community base.
ASSISTANCE INC. (UOA): Kashozi Road
P.O. Box 1074 Bukoba –KAGERA.2nd floor Mama Kerru
Bld. ObjectivesTo assist AIDS orphans to grow up and reach the age of
maturity as self reliant and responsible individuals. To provide
education to HIV victims, HIV prevention, AIDS management and care, and
other HIV/AIDS related problems. Activities : Educating and conducting
research on HIV or AIDS prevention, management, and care. Helping the
upbringing of AIDS related orphans to be self reliant as they attain the
age of maturity. Providing information to families and
the general public on issues pertaining to AIDS, and those
matters affecting the Orphans. Providing counseling and HIV education to
Morogoro Women Focused Afforestation Project: P.o Box 1020
Morogoro. Tel 026-4506.
Mother and child
Organization: P.O Box 60138 Da r Es Salaam. Tel 255-022-247434.
Objectives Provision of
Health and medicare, Provision of reproductive health services to women,
Health and Nutrition education.
Tanzania Social workers Association P. O Box 7732 Dar es salaam
ARTS AND CRAFTS
CENTRE (NYUMBA YA SANAA) p. O Box 4904 Dar es salaam Tel
255-022-233960/220344. Objectives: Training of Women and handicapped
youths in traditional crafts in order to preserve Tanzanian’s cultural
PLANNING ASSOCIATION OF TANZANIA) P. 0 Box
1372 Dar Es Salaam. Tel 255-022-228322/228424 Objective; To
provide family planning information and education to the public.
GOIGO- ( GETTING OLD IS TO GROW) P.O Box Tangi Bovu- Mbezi
Bagamoyo Road Dar Es Salaam. Objectives: To keep retired Women fit
mentally, spiritually and physically by taking part in development
MISSION TO THE NEEDY
P. O Box 7545 Dar Es Salaam. Tel 255-022-230424, fax 255-022-234794.
Objectives: To encourage
desperate people especially women to start life again and be self
reliant. To train them in income generating projects, and to create job
TANZANIA HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION. P.
o Box 1125 Dar Es Salaam Tel 255-022- 27211 ext. 3671. Objectives:
To maintain the interest of Home Economics as a profession, to promote
condition of women and children, socially and economically, to promote
and strengthen women groups at grassroots level.
THE PRESIDENTIAL TRUST FUND FOR SELF RELIANCE.
Box 3850. Dar Es Salaam.
To complement national efforts in
micro-projects and strengthen sael help economic
such as petty business, farming, fishing ,and micro industry
Women Legal Aid Centre
P.O. Box 868, Dar es Salaam
Taaluma Women Group
P.O. Box 75720, Dar es Salaam
Forum for African Women Educationalists
P.O. Box 63319, Dar es Salaam
Environmental, Human Rights, Care and Gender Organisation
P.O. Box 9824, Dar es Salaam
Tanzania Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment
(TAWLAE)P.O. Box 76498, Dar es Salaam
Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC)
P.O. Box 75254, Dar es Salaam
Tel. 255-22-2113177, 2117767, 2118353
National Youth Forum (NYF)
P.O. Box 9354, Dar es Salaam
African Women Development and Communication
Forum for Africa Women Education (FAME)
Mwengo Mwelekeo wa NGO (VISION)
186 HATFIELD HARARE
To build the confidence necessary for African NGOs to define and
sustain their own agenda in all partnerships intended to facilitate
development work in Africa.
To provide an institutional reference point for NGOs within ESA,
especially as an effort to liberate African NGOs from the dependency
which maintain them as “potted plants” nurtured only by ideas, funds
and personnel, from outside the continent.
To put before African NGOs, the issues of relevance and
accountability to the local constituencies and to underline the
necessity of dealing with urgent questions facing Africa and its people,
in a non distorted manner.
Plan International Tanzania
To provide multi-sectoral development assistance to needy
children, their families and their communities.
To promote meaningful relationships based on mutual respect,
between sponsors and beneficiaries.
Poverty Africa (Tanzania)
To lay the foundation for global partnership between the peoples
of Africa and the rest of the World in identifying and implementation
local, national, regional and international strategies for alleviating
poverty in the African region especially in Sub-Sahara Africa.
World Vision International
BUILDING – SERENGETI BLOCK
3475, 3181 EXT. 2342/4
To help poorest communities in development, health, child
To conduct relief programmes for needy countries.
in place related to Gender
Affairs and Management Policy
and Development Policy
and Development Policy
and Training Policy