sector contributes about 2.3 per cent of the GDP, which is
projected to account 10 per cent in 2025 as stated in the Development
Vision 2025. It is one of the leading components in generating
foreign exchange earnings within the non-traditional exports.
Further is has great potentials for employment opportunities and
spearheading for both the forward and backward linkage of the
has a great potential particularly for gold, base metals,
diamonds, ferrous minerals and a wide variety of gemstones, some
of, which are unique such as tanzanites. Coal, uranium, and
various industrial minerals such as soda, kaolin, tin, gypsum,
phosphate and dimension stones are available at an attractive
economic rates. The following are minerals that has attracted most
interest in the recent years:
diamonds have been recorded but a large deposit of economic exploitation
has not yet been found. Locating shallow buried superficial
deposits using airborne infrared surveys may prove useful.
exploration has grown rapidly during the 1990’s using modern
technology and refined models. Investigation has mainly been
focused on the greenstone belts around Lake Victoria with
particular attention on the shear hosted gold mineralization
associated with banded iron formations (BIF), tufts and
"world class" gold deposits have already been discovered
in the Lake Victoria Goldfields and are at different stages of
development. These deposits have reached various stages of
targets have also been revealed in the Proterozoic rocks in the
Southwest of Tanzania. In this case, gold is associated with BIF,
and in gneisses and granites in shear zones.
both the Archaean and the Protozoic rocks are prospective for base
metals and PGM.
exploration in North West Tanzania has revealed extensive
nickel-cobalt-copper mineralization associated with ultramafic
rocks of Karagwe-Ankolean System. Sutton Resources is evaluating
the resources where diamond drilling has outlined contained
resources of 500,000 t nickel, 75,000 t copper and 45,000 t
cobalt, so far.
addition, chromium and platium group metals (PGM) have been
recorded. Substantial deposits of nickel enriched laterite with
cobalt have been delineated over the ultramafics in the Kagera
region. There is also an indication of stratiform
copper-silver-uranium type mineralization in Shinyanga region.
iron ore bodies have been identified in the Proterozoic rocks.
Titaniferous magnetic bodies associated with anorthositic gabbro
occur at Liganga SW Tanzania and is in close proximity (80 kin) to
the coal resources of Ketewaka-Mchuchuma. Shallow drilling
established a resource of 45 million tonnes grading 52 percent Fe.
The Titanium resources are also known in beach sands along the
is mined at Mererani from weathered rock, sometimes in association
with bands, which are also of commercial value. Other gemstones
mined in the country include ruby, rhodolite, sapphire, emerald,
amethyst, chrysoprase, peridot and tormaline. Recently, a major
alluvial occurrence was discovered in the southern region of
Ruvuma, Mtwara and Lindi. Varieties include chrysoberyl, spinels,
sapphire, garnets, zircons and diamonds.
gemstone exports were approximately US$10 million in 1996 majority
of which were exported uncut. Great potential exists in the
establishment of lapidary and jewelry manufacturing industry.
country’s only coal mine at Kiwira has an average annual output
of 35,000 tonnes - all of which is consumed mostly locally for
and dolomite-good resources of high purity occur in the white
marble deposit of the Morogoro Region. Potential for dimension
stone and refractory grade limestone is therefore excellent.
variety of clays - bentonite, kaolin and fullers earth - in
size-able deposits have been identified and are only scantily
exploited. The Pugu kaolin deposit located some 30 kms West of Dar
es Salaam has a great potential for development.
and saline deposits of economic significance are associated with
the rift valley lakes. Investigations of the Soda ash deposits at
Lake Natron revealed a potential recovery of over one million
tonnes a year. Currently, salt production stands at 105,000 tonnes
occurs in high-grade gneisses mainly ion the Usagaran system.
Sufficient reserve have been identified at Merelani, northern
Tanzania, for a 40 year operation at a mining rate of 15,000
tonnes per year of high grade flake graphite of 97-98% purity. The
mine will also producer Tanzanite, which occur in association with
Phosphate deposits have been exploited at Minjingu in Arusha Region at around 48,000 tonnes per year in order to support fertiliser manufacturing. Following the closure of the fertiliser plant in Tanga, current production is mainly used for direct application.
Mineral Policy of Tanzania, 1997 stresses on private sector led
mineral development while the major roles of the government are
regulating, promoting and facilitating. The public roles consist
of the inter alia:
mineral policy objectives are:
features of the Mining Act 1998 are as follows:
mining Act of Tanzania is aimed to deter information hoarding on
new discoveries, freezing of exploration acreage for speculative
purposes, transfer pricing and tax evasion.
fiscal incentives provided to exploration and mining activities
includes the following among others:
any sector of the economy in Tanzania, mining has been tuned to
economic reforms and restructuring undertaken by the government
from the mid 1980s to the 1990’s which have marked a clear shift
in favour of private sector development and market-oriented
economic management. With this effect the government has commenced
on setting up constructive partnerships to promote private sector
enthusiasm and accelerate economic growth. With these changes
therefore, the roles of the government has been redefined from
that of owning the and operating the mines to that of providing a
clear policy guidelines, stimulating private investment and
providing support for investors. The reform is in line with the
Mineral Policy of Tanzania 1997, Mineral Act 1998, and Fiscal
Tanzania Exporters Association,