lives of all Tanzanians depend on natural resources for both the present
and future generations. The
country is endowed with significant natural resources, which include
forests and woodlands, wild animals, rivers, lakes and wetlands.
All these resources play big roles to the economy is terms of the
social and economic goods and services, which they provide. The depletion of these resources will positively undermine
the ecological sustainability of economic activity.
potentials and different roles played by these sectors to the economy
are outlined under specific sub sectors i.e. Fisheries, forests,
wildlife, beekeeping and tourism.
resources and distribution:
is a coastal state endowed with fishery resources.
She has both marine and inland fisheries potential.
The marine water covers 64,000 square kilometres which includes
the Indian Ocean and the Exclusive Economic Zone which covers 223,000
square kilometres. The
fresh water includes the riparian shared waters of East African great
lakes namely Lake Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa.
The country has also other small natural lakes, man made lakes,
river systems and many wetlands with fish potential.
All these water cover 58,000 square kilometres.
The country has coastline of about 800 km declared as its
Exclusion Economic Zone but has not yet exploited. The present annual
fish catch is about 350,000 metric tons.
number of fishermen who are permanently employed is 80,000 and few
others obtain their livelihood from the sector by being employed in the
fishing and fishery related activities.
The artisanal fishermen produce about 90% of the total fish catch
in the country; only 10% is derived from industrial fishing.
Most of the fish caught is consumed locally while Nile perch;
sardines and prawns are for exports.
contributes about one third of the animal protein or 30% of the total
intake to the Tanzanian population.
It is a source of employment, livelihood to the people,
recreation, and tourism in order to generate foreign exchange. The
contribution of the sector to GDP for the past five years has been
staggering between 1.6 and 3.1%.
fisheries resources are renewable resources, which are limited, and
therefore they have to be conserved, managed and developed on
sustainable basis. The
present fisheries policy has addressed clearly the problems faced by the
sector and the actions to be undertaken.
The major focus is on the promotion of sustainable exploitation,
utilization and marketing of fish resources to provide the intended
national social economic objectives and achieve effective protection of
the aquatic environment to sustain development.
private sector, the community non-governmental organizations and other
non-state actors have a useful role to play in the development,
management and sustainable utilization of the fisheries resources. They have diverse experience, expertise and capacity in
sector. Their support of
efforts is required to achieve the sector objectives.
The active involvement in the sector would enhance investment;
improve business and general management in the fishing industry.
Fisheries Research Institute (TAFIRI).
activities are carried out both fresh and marine waters.
institute conducts research in fishery resources and dissemination of
research findings for fishery development and sustainable management of
institute also trains and conducts research on fish technology and on
fish stock assessment.
of Natural Resources and Tourism,
Dar es Salaam
Fisheries Training Institute:
diploma courses on fisheries. These
courses include: marine
engineering, fishing, fishery biology food technology and nautical
Fisheries Training Institute
Dar es Salaam
Mbegani Fisheries Development Centre
diploma courses on fisheries. The
courses include: boat
building, fish processing marketing and quality control, marine
mechanics, marine engineering and tailor made courses.
of the Sector:
has about 33.5 million hectares of forests and woodlands.
Out of this total
area, almost two thirds consists of woodlands on public lands which lack
proper management. About 13
million hectares of this total forest area have been gazetted as forest
reserves. Over 80,000
hectares of the gazetted area is under plantation forestry and about 1.6
million hectares are under water catchment management.
The forests offer habitat for wildlife, beekeeping unique natural
ecosystems and genetic resources. Also bioenergy is the main sources of
fuel for rural population and accounts for 92% of the total energy
consumption in the country. However,
it is estimated that the sector’s contribution to the Gross Domestic
Product is between 2.3% and 10% of the country’s registered exports.
This contribution is underestimated because of unrecorded
consumption of woodfuels, bee products, catchment and environmental
values and other forest products.
value of the Tanzanian forests is high due to the high potential for
royalty collection which increase revenues to the country, exports and
tourism earnings as well as the recycling and fixing of carbon dioxide
and conservation of globally important biodiversity.
The sector also provides 730,000 person – years of employment
who are engaged in various forest related activities.
The real contribution is under estimated due to unrecorded labour
in the collection of woodfuels and other forest related products
consumed by households. The
wood industry accounts for about half of the sector is recorded
contribution to GDP. The
other half is contributed by non-wood products and services.
all the importance and roles played by the forest resources to the
economy, there are a number of problems faced which hamper the
development of the sector and thus the under estimation of contribution
to the economy. The various
problems include among others deforestation, inadequate forestry
extension services, inefficiency wood based industries and poor
infrastructural facilities. Others are outdated legislation, fragmented administration at
all levels between the centre and the local levels, lack of
participation of various stakeholders in the management of the resources
and poor resource databases, outdated and non existence of management
plans for efficient resource use.
THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SECTOR
to the existing national accounting system in Tanzania, the performance
of the sector is measured in the monetized goods and services from it.
This is to say only the production and sale of forest products
within and outside the country are considered in this matter.
A total of 26,269.78 cubic metres were harvested in 1999....
services derived from the sector include pasture for livestock, raw
materials for industries protection of watersheds, source of water for
irrigation, generation of electricity, environmental protection, control
of soil erosion and nutrients. All
these continue to be offered by the forest resources.
performance of the sector is characterized with low capacity utilization
despite the country’s great forest potential.
There are also huge potential for non wood products such as
tourism, game, bee products but are still unknown and undeveloped.
The utilization and management of these resources require a
multi-purpose forest management, local processing and improved
total of 26,269.78 cubic metres were harvested from the natural forests
and 127,202.11 cubic metres from the plantations in 1999. There was a remarkable decrease in harvesting compared to
1998 in which 60,850 cubic metres from the natural forests and 450,400
cubic metres from plantations were harvested.
The demand for wood products is higher than supply for both
domestic and export markets. Export
trade is in fine hardwood timbers which are popular for domestic market
and are only exported for foreign exchange earnings rather than as a
the past few years the performance of the forestry sector was fairly
good in terms of number of trees which were planted and harvested of
forest products. Afforestation
activities are being
carried out throughout the country to conserve the environment, this exercise is done on
participatory approach in which the private sector, the communities, non
governmental organizations and the public at large are involved. For example, during the year 1999 period, a national campaign
on tree planting was initiated and about 100.0 million trees were
planted. Harvesting of
forest products is carried out in both the natural forests
and the plantations. The
main actors being the private companies, pit sawyers and the small scale
trend of exports and sale of forest products for the past five years
from 1995/1996 – 1999/2000 is depicted in the table – economic
survey on “Tanzania online”.
Forest Policy & Regulatory Framework
1998 National Forest Policy, goal is to enhance the contribution of the
forest sector to the sustainable development of Tanzania and the
conservation and management of her natural resources for the benefit of
present and future generations.
main policy objectives are:
sustainable supply of forest products and services by maintaining
sufficient forest area under effective management;
employment and foreign exchange earnings through sustainable forest -
based industrial development and trade;
ecosystem stability through conservation of forest biodiversity, water
catchments and soil fertility.
national capacity to manage and develop the forest sector in
collaboration with other stakeholders.
forest policy areas of focus are:
based industries and products
conservation and management and
and human resources
important instruments for forestry policy implementation is the
establishment of a legal framework, that is the forestry act and
formulation of a comprehensive national forest programme.
This programme will provide a framework addressing forestry
issues within the context of sustainable development.
The draft of forest legislation has been prepared and will be
submitted to the higher authorities for approval.
This will be periodically updated and harmonized with other
legislation of other related sectors.
Full text of the policy on “Tanzania online”.
ROLE OF PUBLIC
AND PRIVATE SECTOR
new forest policy has provided
better environment for the wide participation of all stakeholders in
forestry activities. The
major stakeholders are the division of forest, the local government
private sector, NGOs and donor community.
An enabling environment and regulatory framework for the private
sector involvement in forestry will be created through secured raw
material procurement, training research and transfer of technology.
Incentives and credit facilities for investments will be promoted
and joint ventures will be encouraged.
The role of the public sector will focus on policy development,
regulation, monitoring and facilitation. Decentralization of forest
resource management responsibilities will be promoted.
Specialist technical backup services as well as information
dissemination and sharing will be strengthened.
The local community will be encouraged to participate in forestry
activities. Clear forest land and tenure rights will be defined and
instituted for local communities of all sexes.
The potential areas for investment are:-
harvesting, processing and marketing of forestry products and provision
of credit facilities.
Training and transfer of technology.
services and facilitation of individuals and communities to develop and
REFORMS IN THE
roles and responsibilities of main stakeholders in implementing the
forest implementation have been defined in accordance with the
macroeconomic, social and political changes of Tanzania the increasing
demand of forests for environmental conservation, forest goods for
agricultural expansion, livestock and other land users.
Additionally, the compliance to international agreements such as
international convention to combat desertification, change and other
initiatives required to make reforms in the sector.
To achieve this, effective mechanism for people’s participation
in community forest programme and improving the countries capacity of
all major groups with an interest and a role to play in the conservation
and management of forests and in meeting the demands for forest goods
and services will be promoted and enhanced.
forest sector has been receiving financial support from the donor
community for a long time. However
there has been poor coordination within the sector particularly between
the national priorities and the donor interests.
The actions to address this problem are being worked out to
resolve it. According to the new revised forest policy, consultations
with development partners in the overall sectoral coordination of
various activities will be strengthened.
Integration of donor supported projects into the government
machinery and planning cycles will be promoted.
THE TANZANIA ASSOCIATION OF FORESTERS
was inaugurated in 1979. The
members comprises of forest related professionals.
major objectives include:-
To foster public interest in forestry.
To form a forum for all engaged in forestry.
To advance and promote the forestry profession and all aspects of
To disseminate information relating to forestry to the nation and
other forestry related institutions.
To co-operate and liaise with other organizations in matters of
field activities of the association are to support environment
conservation through community based natural resources management and to
participate in other conservation activities in collaboration with
individuals, government, local community, institution and other NGOs.
TAF Executive Officer
Association of foresters
P.O. Box 426
Dar es Salaam
(Government and Non government)
Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI)
research to discover and disseminate scientific knowledge to
stakeholders which would contribute to effective and sustainable
management and development of the forest resources in the country.
UNDP – GEF East African Cross border Biodiversity
Old Moshi, Road
+255 27 508398
+255 27 508791
Tree Seed Programme (NTSP):
programme is operating as a unit under the Forestry Division and is
responsible for collecting tree seeds of good quality in order to cater
for the country's seed requirements and for export.
Training Institute Olmotonyi:
institute conducts diploma and certificate course in forestry and
beekeeping. Apart from
this, there are two forestry workers training centers in Iringa and
University of Agriculture:
faculty conducts degrees courses in forestry.
Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST)
Dar es Salaam
An NGO’s dealing with management of coastal forests.
the Sector to the Economy
plays a major role in socio – economic development and environmental
conservation. It is a
source of food (honey pollen and brood); raw materials for various
industries, medicine and income for beekeepers.
The sector’s contribution to the GDP is 1%.
It is a source of employment, provides income to the people, a
source of recreation, ecotourism and foreign exchange earner.
markets for honey and beeswax are highly competitive in terms of quality.
In 1991 Tanzania honey won by 100% the Quality Test for organic
Honey in UK. In recent
years the demand for the products both in the local and international
markets has increased. However
there are several problems which hamper the development of the
beekeeping sector. The
performance of the sector for the past fice years from 1994/95 –
1998/1999 has been increasing, for example export of beeswax has
increased from 226 in 1995 to 449 tones for the years 1998.
sector is experiencing a lot of problems which are lack of law, lack of
formal cross – sectoral coordination, ineffective beekeeping extension
services, insufficient statistical information, and inappropriate
Potential & Products
estimated potential of bee products is about 138,000 tons of honey and
9,200 tons of beeswax per annum from an estimated potential of 9.2
million honey bee colonies. Reports
show that only 4860 tons and 324 tons of honey and beeswax are produced
annually, about 3.5 percent of the production potentials of bee products
beekeepers are the main producers of these products.
of beeswax and honey.
of sub-sectors beekeeping – agro forestry systems to maximize the
production of goods and services from the three sectors.
management, and ownership of bee reserves by all stakeholders.
and management of private apiaries.
and facilitation for the production of beekeeping equipment and
and development of honey based industries
and production of beekeeping equipment
Policy & Regulatory Framework
overall goal of the national beekeping policy is to enhance the
contribution of the beekeping sector to the sustainable development of
Tanzania and the conservation and management of her natural resources
for the benefit of present and future generations.
maintenance of honey bees and adequate bee reserves under effective
quality and quantity of bees products on sustainable basis.
employment opportunities and foreign exchange earnings.
ecosystem stability and biodiversity conservation and
national capacity to manage and develop the beekeeping sector.
draft of beekeping legislation has been finalized and the review of
other relevant policies and legislation is going on.
ROLE OF PUBLIC/PRIVATE SECTOR
public and the private sectors will work in partnership in the
management and development of the beekeeping sector.
Each sector will be given different roles and responsibilities as
stipulated in the beekeeping policy of 1998.
The communities, private sector and other non government
organizations will be involved in the conservation and management of
honey-bees while the government will issue guidelines and regulations
for carrying out sustainable beekeeping activities.
Mechanism for appropriate user rights and benefits from the
resources will be worked out by the government.
REFORMS IN THE SECTOR
the commercial activities of the beekeeping sector will be performed by
the private sector, non governmental organizations and the commmunities.
The government’s role will be to regulate, formulate policies
and regulations as well providing technical support and facilitation.
Sectoral coordination among the related and competing sectoral
policies will be enhanced.
donor community will be partners in sustainable development, financial
support, capacity building and facilitation of implementation of
sector is experiencing a lot of problems which are lack of law, lack of
formal cross-sectoral coordination, ineffective, beekeeping extension
services, insufficient statistical information and inappropriate
Potentials of the Sector
network of protected areas which are devoted to wildlife conservation
are the major country is utilization industry.
The forms of wildlife utilization practiced in Tanzania are game
viewing which are potential earners of local and foreign exchange
earnings and employment as they provide tourist attractions. Others are tourist hunting; resident hunting, ranching and
farming. Game trophies and
live birds are also exported which generate export earnings.
the sector employs about 2282 people who are permanent and about 2046
are employed on temporary basis (tour guides and porters).
The communities living adjacent to protected areas do benefit
through hunting will animals for game meat and get support of services
from the private companies operating nearby and the government
institutions related to wildlife sector.
the other land, the sector is constrained by illegal hunting
(poaching) especially of the endangered species like elephants,
competition with other land users, lack of public awareness of wildlife
importance, lack of baseline data and information, inadequate rural user
rights to the community and limited capacity in terms of budgetary
allocation and human resources.
has a rich and diverse spectrum of fauna and flora including a wide
variety of endemic species and sub-species.
The biological diversity and degree of endemism consist of
primates, (20 species and 4
endemic), antelopes (34 species and 2 endemic) fish (with many endemic
in Lake Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa and other small lakes and
rivers), reptiles (290 species and 75 endemic), amphibians (40 endemic)
invertebrates and plants caround 11,000 species including many endemic).
Besides these, Tanzania possesses important populations of
species that are threatened but widespread across Africa.
in terms of its habitats various grasslands and open woodlands of the
Serengeti and Maasai Steppe in the north-west and north-east of Tanzania
support some of the greatest concentration of large mammals in the
wildlife of Tanzania is a unique natural heritage and resource that is
of great importance both nationally and globally.
has 19% of her surface area devoted to wildlife in protected areas where
no human settlement is allowed and 9% wildlife co-exists with humans.
wildlife conservation Act is for the protection, conservation,
development, regulation and control of fauna and flora.
Grazing livestock in game reserves is prohibited under the act.
aim of policy and Regulatory Framework is to involve a broader section
of society in wildlife conservation particularly the rural communities
and the private sector.
maintain the great biological diversity endowment which constitutes an
important economic base to the nation.
broaden the scope of players in the interpretation and
implementation of the policy.
increase the sectoral contribution to the Gross Domestic Product from 2%
enhance wildlife protection, utilization, management and development of
protected areas and international cooperation.
stimulate and guide the local communities and the private sector by
administering, regulating and management of the wildlife resource.
main strategy to implement the policy is to prevent illegal use of
wildlife throughout the country; to create an enabling environment which
ensures sustainable wildlife schemes directly benefiting local
communities, through retaining sufficient revenues from wildlife
utilization in protected areas for management and development purposes,
and cooperate with neighboring countries in the conservation of
DEVELOPMENT & PERFORMANCE:
wildlife sector mandate is sustainable utilization of the wildlife
activities have been intensified resulting in the decrease of poaching
incidences. The wildlife
policy and legislation focuses on peoples’ participation in the
conservation and protection of the resources.
The policy has facilitated improvement in performance of the
sector in attaining the overall goal
of effective conservation and sustainable utilization of the wildlife
resources. Communities living adjacent to the protected areas share
benefits in the form of social and economic infrastructure support.
is a natural resource of biological, economical, environmental dealing
and nutritional values which must be conserved.
The private sector, is encouraged to invest in conducting hunting
and photographic safaris, wildlife ranching, cropping and development of
tourism infrastructures as well as village utilization schemes and
marketing wildlife resources. Different
roles and responsibilities for implementing the policy have been defined
for all stakeholders.
SECTOR STAKEHOLDERS (INSTITUTIONS/AGENCIES)Tanzania
National Parks (TANAPA)
a parastatal responsible for regulating, developing and administration
of Serengeti, Tarangire, Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Ruaha, Manyara, Katavi and
Mikumi national Parks.
Conservation Area Authority:
covers 8,300 square km. It
has a finest blend of landscapes wildlife, people and archaeological
sites in Africa. It is also
a pioneer of experimenting the multiple land use.
parastatal responsible for maintaining the coexistence of human and
wildlife in a natural and traditional setting.
the biological diversity and ecological integrity of the Serengeti
eco-system and Ngorongoro highlands.
the area's internationally significant palaetological and archaeological
sites and resources.
and promote those values for which the areas is designated as a World
Heritage Site and International Biosphere Reserve.
Conservation Area Authority
Wildlife Research Institute (TAWIRI):
research institute on wildlife and wildlife diseases:
stores and disseminate wildlife research findings and advices on
sustainable development of the wildlife resources and advice
research activities of foreign researchers in collaboration with the
Commission for Science and Technology.
Wildlife Research Institute
of African Wildlife Management
training for technical wildlife managers for most of the English
speaking African countries.
of African Wildlife Management Mweka
PO BOX 3031
Tel: +255 27 275 64 51
Fax: +255 27 275 64 14
Mobile: +255 741 20 01 64
Wildlife Protection Fund
Wildlife Conservation Society
+255 22 2112518
+255 22 2124572
Hunting Operators Association
Phone: 255 22 2116136
255 22 2117695
Wildlife Exporter Association
of Tanzania Travel Operators
255 27 504381
IMPORTANCE TO THE ECONOMY:
is tourism sector is among the sectors with great economic growth
potential. It provides a
substantial amount of foreign exchange earnings, employment for 30,000
people and stimulates other sectors like agriculture thereby
contributing to the economic growth.
Its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product is about 14%, but
this is very minimal compared to country’s potentials of the industry.
country is endowed with numerous tourist attractions. Tanzania’s competative strengths in tourism lie in the
abundant and diverse wildlife, the spectacular landscape and scenery, an
unspoilt environment, friendly people and other economic sectors that
have potential to support the tourist sector such as mining sector.
The many natural attractions and the vast size of the country
provide opportunities for developing and promoting different tourism
activities ranging from game viewing, safari and beach holiday
activities, mountain climbing, sight seeing, game hunting and
industry’s mission is to develop sustainable quality tourism that is
ecologically friendly to the conservation and restoration of the
environment and its people’s culture.
In so doing the industry is seeking to maximize the net
gains/benefits that emanate from the various tourism activities.
is one of the unique destinations in Africa that has yet to be
discovered by many. It is a
land of many wonders hobbling an un-paralled diversity of fauna and
flora. Kilimanjaro, the highest permanently snow-capped free
standing mountain in Africa, the exotic islands of Zanzibar, the finest
game sanctuaries of ruins
Serengeti, Tarangire, Lake Manyara, Ngorongoro Crater, Ruaha Selous
impressive ruins of 14th – 16th Century at Kilwa
Kisiwani, Songomnara, Olduvai George and Laitoti footprints and the
Marine park of Mafia island are only but a few of the living examples of
tourist attractions. The
scenery and topography of the country including its very friendly people
harbours the growth of excellent cultural tourism beach holidays, game
hunting, historical and archaeological ventures and certainly the best
wildlife photographic safaris on the continent.
Further information on tourist attractions and services at http/www.tanzania-web-com/home2.htm.
the nation has yet to exploit this sector’s full potential as a way of
making Tanzania a favoured tourist destination.
The sector continue to face general deterioration of supportive
infrastructure particularly those related to accessibility and
reliability of international and internal air transport system, water
and land transport as well as communication facilities like telephones. Also lack of higher quality accommodation and lower
operational costs. Thus
there is need for developing and utilizing tourist attractions through
improvement in tourist related facilities and services which would boost
this sector’s performance tremendously.
Marketing of tourist products is another essential element to
promote Tanzania’s desirable tourist destination.
Potentials of the Sector
is a country of many contracts. It
is endowed with the world’s diverse climatic and geographic zones,
abundant wildlife, sandy beaches, archaeological sites and diverse
cultures. On the contrary,
these potentials are yet to fully exploited, for purposes of tourism
development but the country has mainly concentrated on wildlife.
There is a need to diversify the tourist attractions in order to
achieve a balanced growth in the industry and thereby maximizing
benefits accruing from the sector.
full potential of existing tourist facilities requires the development
of new quality products and diversification of tourist attractions.
Emphasis must be put on the development of primary tourist
attractions like wildlife, improving tourist facilities and service
industry provides excellent opportunities in construction and management
opportunities in construction and management of hotels, lodges and
restaurants, infrastructure ventures, aviation projects, training
institutions, tour operations and travel agencies, marketing
Tourism Policy & Regulatory Framework:
Tourism Policy of September, 1999 has the following objectives; to
promote the economy and livelihood of the people, essentially poverty
alleviation, through encouraging the development of sustainable and
quality tourism that is culturally, and socially acceptable,
ecologically friendly, environmentally sound and economically viable.
To market Tanzania has a favoured tourist destination for touring
and adventure in a country renowned for its cultural diversity and
increase the contribution of the sector from 16 percent to 25 and 30
percent by the year 2010. Thus
it is determined to maintain its tourist resource base in an adequate
manner as it forms part of the public resources, improve existing
tourist infrastructure and develop it further to increase revenue
collections from the sector.
implement the policy are:
supportive infrastructure such a as access roads, air transport etc.
support services such as hotels/restaurant facilities
the quality and efficiency of service delivery
on more active publicity of the industry and marketing arrangements both
domestically and internationally.
the surroundings in the tourist areas by preserving the natural
the various institutions involved in tourism and enhancing coordination
among various tourist services.
local and foreign investment in infrastructure and tourist services.
the quality of personnel to cope with the increasing requirement of the
government will concentrate on provision of basic infrastructure and
conducive environment for other stakeholders, while the private sector
is given mandate to develop the tourism industry.
is operating in a competitive atmosphere in terms of provision of
quality tourism products and services from the given number of
tourist destinations and wide choices available to tourists.
In this case, the policy has clearly spelt out the need to have
an effective legislation in creating a conducive and competitive
is recognized that the private sector and other stakeholders including
the NGOs, the community, the government will play a role in the
industry’s development. The
government will play the catalytic role of providing and improving the
infrastructure as well as providing a conducive climate for investment.
The state has given way to private investment for the sector’s
optimum management. Different
roles and responsibilities have been stipulated in the sectoral policy
responsibility of promoting tourist products will be shared by all
the fact that tourism is a growing industry in the world in terms of
revenue generation and profit making, the donor support for the
provision of sufficient financial and technical assistant.
This will promote and develop the industry.
Tourist Board (TTB)
Tourist Boards promotes tourism development in Tanzania.
of Tanzania’s tourism potential abroad and within the country
publicity compaigns (advertizing, public relations road shows) within
the objective of attracting more tourists.
and publication of destination brochures and other promotional
of tourist information
market research to establish up-to-date tourism database.
Dar es Salaam
255-22-2110908, 2111244/5 and 2136105
Associations (Tour operators, hunting operators, hotel keepers etc)
Tourism Training Institute:
training on hotel management and tourism at certificate level.
courses offered are food and beverages, front office, food production
and Tourism Institute
Dar es Salaam
Antiquities & Museums Division:
objective of the Antiquities and Museum is to conserve, protect,
research and develop the national cultural heritage for the present and
future generation and promotion of recreation and tourism development.
areas and natural heritage of the nation have to be conserved to serve
as tourist attractions and as centres for education to the people.
About 118 out of 400 sites are legally protected and gazetted.
Furthermore, a number of sites have been declared as tourist
properly the cultural sites in their setting so that all of the cultural
values are conserved.
sustainable regional and international cultural cooperation.
information centres and on site museums.
researches and architectural studies.
the sites as education resources and tourist attractions.
involve local communities in public education and management of sites.
sustainable benefits to local communities.
sustainable ongoing traditional use of the heritage by local
Division of Environment has the following overall functions:-
of policy on Environment
and Monitoring of
Environmental Policy, 1997.
The overall objectives of the National Environmental Policy are:-
ensure sustainability, security and equitable use of resources for
meeting the basic need of the present and future generations without
degrading the environment or risking health or safety;
prevent and control degradation of land, water, vegetation, and air which constitute our life support systems;
conserve and enhance our natural and man-made heritage, including the
biological diversity of unique ecosystems of Tanzania;
improve the condition and productivity of degraded areas including urban
and rural settlements in order that all Tanzanians may live in safe,
healthful, productive and aesthetically pleasing surroundings;
- To raise
awareness and understanding of the essential linkages between
environment and development, and promote individual and community
participation in environmental action; and
is abundantly rich in fishery resources. The marine water covers
64,300 square kilometres and fresh water covers 58,000 sq. km. The
fisheries subsector contributes 30 per cent of food consumption in
the country and is the main source of protein for most people.
About 61,823 people are involved in artisinal fishing out of whom
46,670 operate in fresh water while 15,153 operate in marine
total catch has continued rising steadily to 356,960 tons in 1997.
Fish products amounting to 37,098 tons were exported in 1997
compared with 19,625 tons in 1996. Commercial prawn fishing rose
to 343 tons in 1997.It
is the Government's objective to promote fishing activities
especially marine fishing in the exclusive marine zone (200 miles
strip). Problems faced by this subsector includes lack of modern
fishing gear, low technology and inadequate working capital.Forest
and woodlands cover about 45 million ha. of Tanzania's land
surface, half of this resource is on unreserved public land. Most
of the forest is savannah and intermediate woodland (dominated by
brachy-stegia and isoberlinia species). The principal species of
wood in Tanzania are valuable tropical woods such as cedar,
African rosewood, podocarpus and mahogany. There are also
plantation forests covering an area of 250,000 - 300,000 ha.
consisting of Pinus, Cupressus or Eucalyptus and Wattle.The
principal development objective of the forest industry is to
enhance the sectoral contribution to the national economy, to meet
Tanzania's future needs in forest products and to generate export
earning. The performance of forest industry has been characterized
with low capacity utilization despite the country's great forest
potential. The demand for wood products is higher than the supply,
both for the domestic and export markets. Export trade is in fine
hardwood timbers, which are well-known and popular for the
domestic market, and are only exported for foreign exchange rather
than as a surplus . The forest industry is dominated by mechanical
wood processing-sawmilling, furniture joinery and wood based
panels. There is great potential for investing in this sector.
are other non-wood forest products of economic significance and
with the potential for growth such as honey, beeswax, tanwin, gum
arabic, wattle and medicinal plants. In 1988 honey exports earned
US $ 800,000 and wattle exports US $ 4 million.