Madini

Overview

The Ministry of Minerals (MoM) was established under the Presidential Order published GN No.143 dated on 22ndApril, 2016.The Ministry is mandated to formulate and monitor the implementation of mining policies; mines, geophysical and Geological Survey; Mining Commission affairs; value addition in mining industry; local content in mining industry; Small Scale Mining Development; performance improvement and development of the human resource.

The Ministry is also mandated to monitor extra ministerial department’s performance, Parastatals Organization, Agencies, and Projects Operating under the Ministry.

The Ministry has five institutions under it. 
i)    The Mining Commission;
ii)    The Geological Survey of Tanzania (GST); 
iii)    The State Mining Corporation (STAMICO); 
iv)    Tanzania Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (TEITI) and;
v)    Tanzania Gemological Centre (TGC).
 

Mining Opportunities Worth Grabbing

The United Republic of Tanzania is located in Eastern Africa. The country is one of the most mineral-rich countries, blessed with a conducive geological environment, representing all the known stratigraphic formations in the world, ranging from Archaean to recent formations.

These geological formations host a variety of minerals, such as precious metals (gold and silver), iron ore base metals (copper and nickel, cobalt, tin and lead), platinum group metals (PGM), Rare Earth Elements (REE), coal, uranium, diamonds. Tanzania has varieties of colored gemstones (Tanzanite, Ruby, Sapphire, Tsavorite, rhodolite, Aquamarine and Tourmaline). Also, hosts industrial minerals (limestone, kaolin, kyanite, magnesite, phosphate and gypsum.

Minerals in Tanzania are found at different levels of its development stages; hence there is a noticeable contribution of the players in the country's economy. Minerals development is anticipated to create employment, pay taxes and levies to the country, bring in technologies, boost other sectors of the economy through local contents and improve our communities livelihood through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The ministry responsible for minerals issues is responsible for supervising proper exploitation of mineral resources in Tanzania.

To realize our mission of becoming a reputable Ministry in Africa that develops mineral resources sustainably for optimal contribution to the national economy and well-being of Tanzanians, it regulates the sector to contribute significantly to the acceleration of socio-economic development through sustainable development and utilization of mineral resources in Tanzania by 2025.

In contributing to the country's development initiatives, the Ministry of Minerals aims to achieve the mineral sector's linkage with other sectors of economy through Beneficiation and Value addition.

These steps are in line with the implementation of the Mineral Policy of 2009 which aims to strengthen the integration of the mineral sector with other sectors of the economy; improving economic environment for investment; maximizing benefits from mining, developing small scale miners, and promoting and facilitating value addition to minerals.

This links to the amendments of the Mining Act 2010 made in 2017, which aimed at increasing the sector's contributions to the economy and job creation.

Mining sector contribution to national income has increased substantially. A good example is gold exports whereby Tanzania earned $ 2.72 billion in the Financial Year that ended on July 31, 2020 – up by $ 1.78 billion earned in the same period of 2019.

Last but not least, Tanzania has a conducive investment environment that includes political stability; an internationally competitive legal framework and fiscal regime; vast untapped mineral
resources; access to geographical resource databases with adequate and updated information and infrastructure development (power, railways, roads, ports and airports).

Notably, the Julius Nyerere Hydro-power Project with 2,115 MWs construction will upon completion increase massively the availability of electricity in the country for domestic and industrial use. All these are key factors to the development of the mining sector.
 

Geology Opportunities

The mining sector is among the leading economic sectors in Tanzania, currently contributing over 5.2 per cent to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), with a growth rate of 17.7 percent as of the 2019/2020 data. It is the fastest-growing sector in Tanzania, followed by the construction industry. Among the factor that make Tanzania among countries benefiting from the mining economy, is its conducive geological environment.

Tanzania boasts various geological environments that cover the entire Chrono-stratigraphic units known worldwide from Achaean through Proterozoic, quaternary to present.The country geology with all its chrono-stratigraphical units is potential for all types of mineralization. Hence, the country is endowed with diverse mineral resources ranging from gold, iron ore, nickel, basemetals, rare earth minerals, gemstones and industrial minerals.

There are four classified geology and mineral potentials in Tanzania.;

i) The Dodoma supergroup

This is the high-grade metamorphic terrain located in the central Tanzania, rich in gold deposits for commercial interest in Madengi Hills and Nholi gold deposits and Nyakavangala Mafulungu - Sim-banguru, Mazoka - Undewa.

ii) The Nyanzian Greenstone

This classified geology and mineral potential is in the northern part of Tanzania. The main mineral found in Nyanzian Greenstones is gold with world-class mines of Geita, Bulyanhulu, Buzwagi, Tulawaka, and North Mara and Resolute. Other accessory minerals found in Nyanzian Greenstones include; copper and silver associated with gold deposits of Bulyanhulu and Buzwagi. Also, in the Nyanzian greenstones, Nickel Deposit was found at Dutwa in Simuyu region; Copper Deposit at Ibaga and Platinum Group Metals found in Mara Region. 

There are plenty of aggregates and dimension stones, such as suitable pink granites found between Biharamulo and Chato. Apart from that, other projects in the Nyanzian Greenstone with indicated resources are such as Golden Ridge, which has 770,000 ounces of gold, Nyanzaga with 4,599,000 Ounces of gold, Nyakaf-Uru with 388,000 ounces of gold

Reserves and 899,000 ounces of old of Resources. Also, there is Buckkeef/Rwamagaza which has 1,150,000 Oz of Resources, Kitongo– Mwamazengo has 479,000 Ounces, Sambaru - Londoni (Shanta) has 858,000ounses, Miyabi has 736,000 ounces of Resources, Ikungu has 185,000 ounces, and Chocolate Reef  has 1,300,000 ounces.

iii) The Paleoproterozoic (Ubendian and Usagarian)
The Paleoproterozoic Mobile Belt ages < 2500 to 1750 Ma, consisting of high-grade metamorphic rocks mainly of the almandine amphibolites facies to granulite facies, locally with eclogite facies) and some of its parts contain re-worked Archaean rocks.

Mineral reserves found in the Paleoproterozoic Belts of Tanzania are Gemstones in skarn and hy-drothermal origin forming the Emeralds of Sumbawanga.

There is Gold in Mpanda shear zones at Mukwamba, Sikitiko - Kapapa, D-Reef, Ibindi and Kapanda together with Lead Copper deposits in the Mukwamba shear zones; Copper in Kapalamsenga; Gold in Lupa Shear Zones at Luika, Saza, Ntumbi, Matundas and Sangambi. There Gold– Copper hostsalso in Ludewa, at Nkomang’ombe and Amani.

The belt has Manganese in Kabulwanywele, located at Kilimakya Nkole and Manyoro; Iron ore and base-metals in mafic rocks located at Liganga in the Livingstone Mountains and Iron ore in Chert located at Itewe. the Dimension stones (marble and granites) and other Industrial minerals.

iv) Gondwanide Terrains

The Gondwanaide terrains is aged 500 to 180 Ma and sub-divided into two parts, the post-Pan-African Palaeozoic platform sediments and the Karoo event of late Carboniferous to Triassic. Karoo Sediments of Late Carboniferous and Lower Jurassic are rift sediments deposited in basins developed during the initial phase of fragmentation of Gondwana.

Mineralization in the terrains includes the main host of Coal deposits and the newly discovered Uranium Deposits at Mkuju (35.9 million lbs). Coal reserves in Tanzania are found in the following areas: Mchuchuma with indicated ore of 536 million tons; Ketewaka has indicated ore of 291 million tons; Songwe – Kiwira – Ivogo – Kabulo has indicated ore of 595 million tons; Mbalawala “Ngaka” has indicated ore of 250 million tones, Mbuyura – Mkapa “ Ngaka” has indicated ore of 162 million tons; Rukwa (Galula – Nkomolo – Namwele - Muze) has inferred ore of 70 million tons; Mhukuru has inferred ore of 27 million tons; Mbamba Bay has inferred ore of 28 million tons; and Njuga has inferred ore of 23 million tons.

v) Pre-Rift Gondwanaland Break- Up Events (Jurassic – Paleogene) 
The Jurassic – Paleogene and Neogene – Quaternary Deposits are rich in firstly, Sediments. Sediments are rich of fluvial red beds Deposition in the hinterland, Initial deposition of marine deposits along the cost (Coral Limestone for cement factories in Mtwara, Tanga and Dar es Salaam); Mandawa Gypsum Deposits; and Beach sand with Heavy Mineral Sands.
Secondly are Intrusive Rocks these are Partial intra – Cratonic rift associated with Carbonatite and Kimberlite Intrusions. Weathering on the Peneplanes.

This type of rocks found in; Bauxite (Usambara – Pare Mountains); and Kaolin (Matamba Plateau, Uwemba, Usambara - Pare Mountains, Pugu); and Other clays (Ochre, Poultry Clays, Meerschaum, Bentonite).

Thirdly are Hydrocarbons
There are reservoirs for hydro-carbon deposits along the whole coast of Tanzania.

A. Carbonatite Deposits

Carbonatites are deposits mostly Cretaceous except for Ngualla, which is Proterozoic. These deposits are in Arusha (Oldonyo Lengai and Kerimasi), Mbulu (Oldonyo Dili and Galapo), Morogoro (Wigu Hill, Majiya Weta, Luhombero and Zizi), Mbeya (Ngualla, Panda Hill, Songwe Scarp, Musensi and Senjeri Hill), Karema (Sangu - Ikola), Malawi Border (Nachendezwaya). Carbonatite minerals are Phosphate – apatite, Barite, REE, Fluorite and Niobium.


B. Kimberlite Intrusions (Home of Diamonds)
Mwadui Kimberlite is divided into two main resources as follows:

• Indicated Resources - the ore is 69.3 million tons; diamonds present are 3.58 million carats with grade 5.17 carats/hundred tons; and

• Inferred Resources - ore is
962.9 million tons, diamonds present are 35.13 million carats with a grade of 3.63 carats/hundred tons.

   Other Kimberlite Intrusions (Diamond Occurrences) in Tanzania

 

Tanzanite Exclusive Gem

Tanzanite is a unique gemstone that is 1000 times rarer than diamonds. The gemstone is a blue variety of zoisite composed of hydrous calcium aluminium silicate with an orthorhombic crystal habit. The rare gemstone is found at only one locality in the world, at Mirerani hills in Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania. It takes only 15 minutes to drive from Kilimanjaro International Airport and one to one and a half hours from Moshi and Arusha town.

However, Mirerani is said to originate from Mirera trees found in the Mirerani Hills. Tanzanite is a pleochroic gem. Pleochroism is a physical property in which the material appears to
be different colours when viewed from different crystallographic directions or angles.

Some tanzanite specimens can be a distinct blue when viewed from one direction, and vary from violet to burgundy or maroon when viewed from other directions.This gemstone’s age is estimated to be about 600 million years in geological time scales. It was discovered in 1967 by the Late Jumanne Mhero Ngoma.

On April 6, 2018, the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania officially recognised Mzee Ngoma as the discoverer of the tanzanite gemstone.There are approximately 840 mining licenses at Mirerani, of which 250 are currently mined. The mines at Mirerani are divided into five blocks: Block A, B, C, D and D-extension. The blocks are subdivided to ensure proper distinction, identification, and monitoring of the mines around the area.

All mines in Mirerani are surrounded by the popularly known Magufuli Wall of 24.5 kilometres long and three meters high. The wall is juxtaposed with Mirerani Controlled Area Regulations, 2018, which significantly helped control the smuggling of the gem.

The wall was also intended to strengthen the conducive environment for tanzanite trade and benefit the country from levies and taxes. Since the Magufuli Wall’s construction, the nation has witnessed a number of positive out-comes from the rare gemstone one among them are the increase in government revenue from small scale miners at Mirerani raised to 2.15 billion in 2019 from 166 million in 2018.

Nevertheless, recently Tanzania witnessed an extraordinary three (3) rare big sized gemstones that have never happened in the history of tanzanite in the country. The big pieces were mined by a Tanzanian smallscale miner Saniniu Kurian Laizer.

The biggest stone weighed 9.27 kgs worth 4.3 billion shillings, second with 6.33kgs and valued at 4.8 billion shillings. The third piece weighed 5.103 kg
attracting 3.375 billion shillings. All these symbolise the magnitude and significance of the “Magufuli Wall”.

Talking about security at Mirerani, the place is enhanced with about 306 CCTV cameras throughout the wall perimeter recording incidents in all weather conditions. The purpose is to detect objects and people entering the controlled area, storing permanent information, noticing those who intend to commit crimes, and track incidents.

However, Tanzanite business at Mirerani is progressing well and equipped with all the required necessities for business conveniences with The Mirerani One-Stop Center’s construction. The centre includes Tanzanite Valuation Amenities.

As a country, we still call upon investors to invest in adding value to tanzanite and other gemstones by investing in cutting and polishing industries in Tanzania. Opportunities in this area are bountiful and so encourage everyone to invest in the Value Addition Industry.

Generally, following its uniqueness, Tanzania plans to establish a Tanzanite Mineral Museum at the Mirerani area to provide opportunities for people from various parts of the world to visit the mineral’s place of origin.

Have a Tanzanite experience and the whole chain of Tanzanite mining and value addition. The goal is to give to the world a heritage feeling of the unique wealth that only Tanzania is endowed with.

On top of that, tanzanite was designated as a modern birthstone for December in 2002. Tanzanite is named December birthstone together with zircon and turquoise. December’s birthstones offer three ways to fight the winter blues; all of them, appropriately as best known for best shades of blue.

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